Geographical Position, Isfahan
The province of Isfahan covers an area of approximately 107,027 square kilometers and is situated in the center of Iran. To its north, stand the Markazi (Central) Province and the provinces of Qom and Semnan. In the south, it is within the limits of the provinces of Fars, Kohkiluyeh and Booyer Ahmad. Eastwards, it is in the neighborhood of the provinces of Khorassan and Yazd. Whereas, in the west it has common borders with the provinces of Lurestan and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari.
The city of Isfahan is the provincial capital; and the townships of this province are as follows: Aran, Bidgol, Ardestan, Isfahan, Barkhovar and Meymeh, Khomeini Shahr, Khansar, Semirom, Shahr-e-Hana, Faridan, Fereidune Shahr, Falavarjan, Kashan, Golpayegan, Lanjan, Mobarakeh, Naein, Najaf Abad, Shahreza and Natanz. According to the census in the year 1996, the population of the province rated at 3.9 million, of which approximately 74.3 % were urban dwellers and 25.7 % resided in the rural areas.
The province of Isfahan experiences a moderate and dry climate on the whole, ranging between 40.6° C (being the maximum on a hot summers day), and the minimum being 10.6° C on a cold day in the winter season. The average annual temperature has been recorded as 16.7° C. and the annual rainfall on an average has been reported as 116.9 millimeters. The city of Isfahan experiences an excellent climate, with four distinct seasons that are apparent.
History and Culture, Isfahan
Historians have come to record Espahan, Sepahan or Isfahan as a defense and military base. The security and protection of which was guaranteed by the increase of the number of castles, thereby, promoting the protection of the residents of the cities. These historical castles are Atashgah, Sarooyieh, Tabarok, Kohan Dej, Gard Dej etc. to name a few. The plain of Isfahan which is situated amidst the wilderness and the arid hills of central Iran from one side, and the importance of its position in relation to the extensive central plateau of the country, plays a vital part in its connection with the historical and archaic past of Iran. Isfahan province encompasses various sects. The majority of the people in the province are Fars, but Bakhtiaris, Armenians, Hebrews and to a certain extent Azari or Turks are also residents of this province.
The official language of the province is Farsi or the Persian, though the minorities abide by their own language such as Hebrew, Turkish or Lori. Isfahan province is noted for its reputed personalities such as writers, poets and other imminent figures who have been born and brought up or have lived in this territory.