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Geographical Position, South Khorassan Province  

The province of South Khorassan, located in the east of Iran covering an area of 90,000 sq. km. It is bounded to Razavi Khorassan in north , Afghanistan Republic in the east, Sitan and Baluchistan in the south and Kerman Province in westsouth and Yazd Province in the west.  This province has 4 townships that are Birjand, Qaenat, Sarbisheh and Nehbandan. In 2005 about 600,000 people resided in South Khorassan 

Climate, South Khorassan Province  

Climatically this province is a dry and warm region composed of two mountainous and plain areas. The mountainous region is located in the north and northeast of the Province while the plain areas are in south and southeast of it. The mountainous area enjoy moderate climate. The climate of the region can be divided as follows:

Moderate Semi-arid That includes northern and east northern areas and

Arid and warm region that is in the south and west of the Province.

The highest temperature of the province in the summer is 40 degree C and the lowest in -10 degree C. Average annual precipitation is about 200mm.

History and Culture, South Khorassan Province  

In the past history of Iran, the province of South Khorassan has been a part of Ghahestan (meaning mountains in Arabic language)  that was attributed to the southern part of Khorassan of which  Qaen was the center.

In the legendary history of Iran, the foundation of Ghahestan has been attributed to Saam and Nariman in the time of Pishdadian Dynasty. There are some villages in the region called Salm-Abad, Fereydoon Geer and… indicative of this fact.
 
According to inscriptions belonging to Achaemenian time and some Greek historians, Ghahestan had been the habitat of Sagart and Aryan tribes. Herodotus, the Greek historian, describes that they have been oriental tribes and a part of 14th Satrap of Achaemenian Government.

In late 5th century AH, Ghahestan was an important center of Ismailieh sect under the leadership of Hassan Sabbah. Due to its natural conditions and backwardness, it was a suitable place for the activities of this movement after Alamoot in Ghazvin.  In Safavid era, due to their policy for development of buisiness and commerce, this region developed considerably from economic ans security points of view. Then, Birjand, that was a village, was chosen  as capital of Qaenat under the governorship of Alam Clan. This family played a very important role in all historical events of the region.   
 
This province was a part of Khorassan Province till the year 2004 and it was separated as a new province.