Geographical Position, Khuzestan
The province of Khuzestan is situated in the southwest of Iran, and covers an area of 63,238 sq. km. The various townships of the said province are as follows: Abadan, Andimeshk, Omidiyeh, Ahvaz, Eazeh, Baq-e-Malek, Mah Shahr, Behbahan, Khoram Shahr, Dezful, Dasht-e-Azadegan, Ramhormoz, Shadegan, Shoosh, Shooshtar and Masjed Soleiman. According to the census in the year 1996, the province had a population of 3.7 million, of which approximately 62.5 % were in the urban areas, 36.5 % were rural dwellers and 1% of the remaining were non-residents
The province of Khuzestan can be basically divided into two regions,i.e., the plains and mountainous regions. The former being in the south and west of the province. The same being the alluvial plains, that are irrigated by Karoon, Karkheh and Jarahi Rivers . Whereas the mountainous regions are situated to the north and east of the province, and are considered to be a part of southern regions of the Zagross Mountain Ranges.
In the elevated and mountainous regions of the province, a moderate summer and cold winter are experienced, but in the skirts of the mountains semi-desert like conditions prevail. In plains and inferior regions of south and southeast, a variable climate ranging from semi-desert to coastal desert pre-dominates. Thus this region experiences long and warm summers beside short, moderate winters.
Khuzestan province comes under the influence of three kinds of air currents - first, the cold air current of mountainous regions which during the winters blows towards the Persian Gulf, thereby brings about cold weather. Second, the coastal winds that occasionally blow from the Persian Gulf in summers and is saturated with a high percentage of humidity and heat, influencing the plains. Third, is the air current blowing from Arabia known as 'Somum'(poison), which is always accompanied by dust and sand, and crossing the Persian Gulf it gets saturated with high levels of humidity.
History and Culture, Khuzestan
The province of Khuzestan is one of the centers of ancient civilizatios, dating back to 6,000 years in Shoosh (Susa). In the 4th millennium BC the powerful Elamite govenment was founded in Susa, and was overthrown in the 1st millennium BC by the Assyrians.
In the year 640 BC, Shoosh came under the rule of the Assyrians and was divided into two parts. The northern segment named "Anzan" came under the rule of Parsees who had been the former settlers of this region, and the southern part was dominated by the Assyrians.
In the year 640 BC, Shoosh came under the rule of the Assyrians and was divided into two parts. The northern segment named "Anzan" came under the rule of Parsees who had been the former settlers of this region, and the southern part was dominated by the Assyrians. In the year 538 BC Koorush (Cyrus) the Achaemenian, sent his forces to Babylon and conquered the Elamite lands. The city of Susa was then proclaimed as one of the Achaemenian capitals. Moreover, in the year 521 BC, Shoosh came under the interest of Darius (Dariush), who erected a grand palace known as 'Hadish' here. But the astonishing period of upmost glory and splendour of Achaemenian dynasty came to an end by the conquests of Alexander the Macedonian. After Alexander the Selookis or the Seleucidian Dynasty came into power.
In the year 187 BC, due to weakness of Seleucidian Dynasty, Pars and Khuzestan united and slipped out of their control. Mehrdad I, the Parthian (171-137 BC) gained victory over the Selooki ruler in a war and appointed someone from the Parthian Dynasty as a ruler of Khuzestan. During the Sassanide Dynasty this area thrived tremendously and flourished, and this dynasty was responsible for the many constructions that were erected in Ahvaz, Shooshtar and the north of Andimeshk. After the moslem Arabs conquered Iran, the Omavi and Abbassid Caliphates held the ropes in Khuzestan and ruled till the mid 3rd thousandth AH.
On the decline of the latter, Yaqub (Jacob) Lais, from the vicinity of Sistan, raised the flag of independence and ultimately gained control on Shoosh and Shooshtar. In the year 326 AH, Moaz-ul-Dowleh Daylami ruled Kerman and Khuzestan. From the years 443 - 845 AH, the Kharazmshahian, the Shalmeh Afshar Dynasty, the Attabaks of Fars, the Mozaffar Dynasty, the Jalayer Dynasty and the Teimoorians respectively ruled Khuzestan either completely or partially. In the year 845 AH., the religious movement of "Mosha'sha'ian" were formed in this region. The Safavid rulers sent their troops to attack the Mosha'sha'ian and Afshars several times. In the year 1142 AH. Nader Shah Afshar entered Khuzestan. On the death of Karim Khan Zand, the area was witness to violations, and during the reign of Fathali Shah Qajar, Khuzestan was finally divided into two.
After the Iran -Britain war in 1273 AH, peace prevailed in Khuzestan for a period of 40 years. At this time the Arab tribes or clans had been divided into different groups, each being ruled by a Sheikh (or chief). In the past eighty years, except during Iran-Iraq war, the province of Khuzestan thrived and prospered, and today accounts for one of the regions in Iran that holds a strategic position.