Geographical Position, Kurdestan
The province of Kurdestan with the area of 28,817 square kilometers is located in the west of Iran. According to the latest country's divisions in 1996, the townships of Kurdestan are: Baneh, Bijar, Divandareh, Saqez, Sanandaj, Qorveh, Kamyaran and Marivan. Sanandaj is the center of this province. This province is a mountainous region located in the mountainside or scattered plains of the Zagross mountains. Kurdestan is limited to the north by west Azarbayjan and Zanjan, on the east by Hamadan and Zanjan and on the south by the province of Kermanshah and it is neighboring Iraq from the west.
The population of this province in 1996 was about 1.3 million out of which 52.4 percent settled in the urban areas and 47.6 percent were the rural settlers.
Kurdestan is generally located in the northwest mountainous temperate zone of Iran. The maximum rainfall is in the western part of this province, being about 800 mm. per year and the least amount of rainfall is in the eastern part being about 400 mm. per year. All parts of this province have a cool and temperate climate in spring and summer.
The comparison between the figures of the average temperature in different months of the year in the center of this province shows that the daily average temperature in month of April is 16.1° C and in October is 16.9° C. So, at six months of the year in the center of this province is the best and most suitable period for tourism. The coldest month of the year in Sanandaj is the month February with temperature of at least -1° C.
History and Culture, Kurdestan
The history of Kurdestan before Islam is not much clear. The Kurds are of the Aryan race who migrated to this place several thousand years before the birth of Christ. In the years 16-20 AH., the Arabs possessed castles and fortifications of the Kords. The conquest of the cities of 'Zoor' and 'Aradbaz' took place in the year 22 AH. In 23 AH. when the Arabs conquered the Fars states in Iran, the Kords defended the city of Fasa. Abu Moosa Ash'ari suppressed the revolt of the Kurds in the year 25 AH.
In the year 90 AH. the Kurds of Fars revolted but Hajaj Ebne Yousef Saqafi suppressed them. In 224 AH., one of the leaders of the Kords in Mousel city revolted against the Caliph Al Mo'tasam who sent the famous commander 'Aitakh' to combat against him. In this war Aitakh proved victorious and killed many of the Kords. In 281 AH., during the period of Almoqtadar, the Kurds revolted again. In the fourth and fifth century, the family of 'Shadadyan' who were Kurds formed an independent rule in the region. In 359 AH. Azedodoleh Deilami broke out with the Kurds of Mousel and after conquering them, he destroyed their castles and killed the commanders.
One of the important events during the period of Sharafodoval Deilami (372-379 AH.) is his battle with 'Badr Ben Hasnaviyeh' in Kermanshah in 377 AH. that lead to the victory of Badr. Badr Ben Hasnaviyeh' was killed by one of the Kurd tribes in 405 AH. and Shamsodoleh, the son of Fakhrodoleh Deilami attached all of his possessions to his own realm.
The cities of Kurdestan were exposed to plunder during the Mongol attack, and at the time of Teimoor and Turkmans of Qareh Qoyonlu and Aq Qoyonlu , Kurdestan became the battle scene of Teimoor's army. Shah Esmail I, founder of Safavid dynasty, did not have a good relationship with the Kurds as they differed in religious beliefs. On the other hand, Ottoman rulers tried to gain a hold.
When Zand dynasty was formed, the Kurds took hold of the government for the first time in Iran. In 1941 at the time of the occupation of Iran by the allies, and support of the Russian government by them, Qazi Mohammad formed the Peoples Republic of Kurdestan but this republic disintegrated after the evacuation of the allies from Iran and the dispatch of forces by the central government to Azarbayjan and Kurdestan.
Today Kurdestan is one of the important and strategic provinces of Iran and is flourishing. From the cultural point of view, Kurdestan province proves to be interesting in respect to other parts. Language, music, dance, poetry or even traditions, in this extensive region of Iran form an exceptional grounding from ancient periods. The Kordish language can be categorized under the Indo-European group, with a distinctive grammatical form. This language has various branches in Iran. Such as the Orami, which is a dialect, having extremely archaic and historical roots. In addition to which is the Sorami branch, being the more important and dominant of the two, in respect to the Kurdish language. However, the Kermanshahi branch is outstanding in the territory of Kermanshah.