Geographical Position, Mazandaran
Mazandaran province covers an area of 23,833 sq. km. The townships of the province are as follows: Amol, Babol, Babolsar, Behshahr, Tonekabon, Chaloos, Ramsar, Sary, Savad Kooh, Qaem Shahr, Mahmood Abad, Neka, Noor and Noshahr. The city of Sary is the center of Mazandaran province.
Mazandaran (Khazar) Sea or the Caspian Sea is to the north, the provinces of Tehran and Semnan lie towards the south. To the west it has common borders with the Gilan province, and to the east stands the province of Golestan. According to the census of 1996, the population of the province was about 2.6 million of which 46 % were registered as urban dwellers, 54 % dwell in the rural areas and the remaining were non-residents.
From the geographical point of view, Mazandaran province is divided into two parts i.e. coastal plain and the mountainous area. The Alborz Mountain Range like a huge wall has surrounded the coastal strip and plains of the Caspian Sea. Due to permanent sea breez and local winds of the southern and eastern coasts of the Caspian Sea, sandy hills are formed, causing the appearance of a low natural barrier between the sea and plain.
Mazandaran province naturally comes under the influence of the geographical latitude, Alborz heights, elevation from sea level, distance from the sea, and the southern barren areas of Turkmenistan, local and regional air currents, and versatile vegetation cover. Therefore, prompting the climate of the province to be divided into three types : Moderate Caspian weather with hot, humid summers, and mild, humid winters. Moderate mountainous weather with long, cold, and freezing winters and mild and short summers, and cold mountainous weather with long freezing winters and short cool summers. There is often snowfall during most of the seasons in the latter region, which continues till mid -summer.
History and Culture, Mazandaran
There is not much information available on the ancient history of the province, and basically the climatic conditions of the region have prevented the existence of historical monuments. There are no sound vestiges obtained related to the pre-Islamic periods in the coastal plains of Mazandaran. Besides, there is no monument or memorial present in the reputed cities of the early Islamic period, except for the Amol and Sary cities. On the encroachment of the Aryans and the migration of natives, the new settlers, came under the Achaemenian rulers for a period of time. In the year 30 AH. during the caliphate of Osman, Saad-Ebne-Aas, the governor of Kufeh, conquered the coasts of Tabarestan, Roomian, and Damavand.
During the caliphate of Abou Jafar Mansour (136-158 AH.), the second Abbasi Caliph, the people of Tabarestan revolted against him continuousely. Ultimately, Vandad Hormoz established an independent dynasty in Tabarestan in 167 AH. In the year 426 AH. Soltan Mahmoud Qaznavi entered Tabarestan via Gorgan and was responsible for heavy damages.
Soltan Mohammad Kharazmshah invaded Tabarestan in the year 606 AH. Thereafter, the Mongols governed the region and finally were overthrown by the Teimoorids.
On the death of Amir Teimoor, Sa'adat Marashi (807-850 AH.) returned to the region and took over the power, but lost the same during the reign of Shah Abbas I .
After the dissolution of the feudal government of Tabarestan, which held power till the year 1006 AH., the region was dominated by Shah Abbas I and his successors.
During the reign of Nader Shah, a ship building foundry or workshop was established in Mazandaran in order to confront with enemies specially the Russians. During the reign of Fathali Shah Qajar, the verdant region of Mazandaran was paid due attention as a recreational area. During the Pahlavi era, a network of roads were constructed in this region, as in other parts of the country. Suitable environmental conditions, pleasant and moderate climate, beautiful natural landscapes, and proximity to Teheran, have caused this province to be one of the main recreational and tourism areas of the country.
Besides catering to the local or native inhabitants, Mazandaran province, has offered refuge to many other communities such as the Balooch, Turks, Lors, Afqans, Georgians, and the Armenians, who have upheld their respective traditions and culture till now.
The Tabari or Mazandarani language is the ancient language of the Iranians or (Parsi) dialect. This was one of the languages that did not come under the influence of others, such as the foreign languages of the Mongols, Arabic and the Tatar, and remains till this date in various dialects in the region . Reputed scholars and poets have been raised in this territory, for example, Nima the famous contemporary poet of Iran.