Geographical Position, Semnan  

The province of Semnan covers an area of 96,816 square kilometers, to the east of which is Khorassan province, to the north are the provinces of Golestan and Mazandaran, to the west stand the provinces of Tehran and Qom, and to its south is Esfahan province. The various townships of the said province are, Semnan, Damqan, Shahrood and Garmsar. In the year 1996, the province had a population of about 501,000 of which 68.3 % were in urban areas, and 31.7 were rural dwellers. In 1996, Semnan cSemnan Mapity (the capital of the province) had a population of 91,000, and the city of Shahrood, which accounts for being the largest city of this province, had a population of 105,000.

Semnan province is located in the southern skirts of the Alborz Mountain Ranges, with a downward gradient from north to south, ending at the deserted plain. The said province is divided into two,i.e., a mountainous region and the plains at the foot of the mountains. The former offers a scope for recreational activities as well as being a source for minerals. Whereas, the latter encompasses ancient cities of Iran.

Climate, Semnan  

The mountainous region of the province experiences a cold climate, whereas the mountain skirts and around the fringes of the desert are temperate and warm respectively. The city of Damqan, has cold weather in winter with moderate summers, being influenced by the strong northern rain bearing winds from Golestan and Mazandaran regions. The city of Semnan experiences warm summers and moderate winters, Shahrood in its northern sector proves to be cold and in the central and southern regions temperate, and warm respectively. Furthermore, the city of Garmsar has extremely hot summers with comparatively cold, rainy winters, as this city is located in a dry and desert-like region.

History and Culture, Semnan  

Semnan province can be said to be divided into sixteen sectors from the olden days dating to the time of Avesta. During the Medes and Achaemenian periods, it accounted for being as one of the largest provinces of the Parthians. Likewise, this region held its importance during the Sassanide period, and thence in the post Islamic era was part of the historical region of Gomess or 'Komesh'. Needless to say, this province was witness to wars, defeats and victories in the past. The 'Silk Road' paved its way from the midst of this region.

Besides which a number of historical relics such as, palaces, buildings, castles, ancient inns or 'caravansaries', water reservoirs, towers, rampart and… have created an imprint here. To state a few examples such as, the palaces of Aqa Mohammad Khan and Fathali Shah in Damqan, the palaces of Shah Abbas, Einol Rashid and the Haramsara or special apartments for the women (of the palace) of Soltani in Garmsar. Edifices belonging to the daughters of Naseredin Shah in Damqan, the castles of Saroo, Kushmoqan and Pachenar in Semnan, the castles of Lasjerd and Benkooh in Garmsar and ... are interesting historical relics of the province.

In addition to the above , there are various religious and sacred places and mosques such as, the Soltani Mosque, the Jame' Mosque, the Tarikhaneh Mosque of Damqan, the Jame' Mosque of Bastam and ... are such examples. 

Semnan province is one of the most attractive regions from the aspect of natural beauty. These picturesque scenes can be viewed alongside the river banks, natural and mineral springs, recreational areas, forests, open spaces, protected areas, summits and peaks, caves, and special desert features account for the numerous natural attractions of the region.  

Moreover, the province encompasses various cultural traditions and rituals. These can be related to national or religious festivities, marriage ceremonies and both public and private mourning ceremonies including religious rituals, which hold their own and differ from other parts. This province can boast of scholars and poets such as, Manoochehri Damqani, Ebne-Yameen Forumadi, Forouqi Bastami, Yaqma'ie Jandaqi, and Zowqi Bastami. Regarding scholars and Gnostics of this region, such personalities can be named as, Bayazid Bastami, Sheikh Abol Hassan Kherqani, Sheikh Allaoddoleh Semnani, Sheikh Sakak and Bibi Manjomeh Semnani are worth mentioning. 

As to the reputed contemporary personalities, Haj Ali Semnani, Feyz Semnani, Zabiollah Safa and Ali Mo'alem can be quoted as examples. One of the outstanding rituals of the region is the refraining from wearing black clothing during mourning ceremonies, thus revealing a basic revulsion towards the 'black flag' of the Abbasian dynasty.

 

 



Haramsara Palace, Garmsar

Friday, 04 January 2008 12:52 administrator
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 This palace is located at a distance of 1 km. south east of the Shah Abbas palace and was most probably a temporary royal residence used during traveling time, and also was used as 'haramsara' or special apartments for the court women. Whereas in other times, this palace was in the hands of the royal hunters (of the court). This palace comprises of porches, halls, haramsara, in addition to various other chambers.
 

Einol Rashid Palace, Garmsar

Friday, 04 January 2008 12:51 administrator
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 The said palace is situated 2 km. north of the Shah Abbas palace. Externally the structure is 86 m. in length and with a maximum of 47 m. in breadth. This structure has two large courtyards, and the entrance is in the shape of a porch south of the main courtyard.
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Ebrahim Khan Edifice (Molladeh Hunting Site), Semnan

Friday, 04 January 2008 12:50 administrator
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 In the village of Molladeh of Semnan two double storey beautiful edifices are situated within 50 m. from each other. They are made of sun baked bricks, and adorned with other architectural effects. The main doorway is of wood and on top of the western doorway the date 1310 AH. can be noted. This is the date of repair of the structure. In the year 1287 AH., the same was used as a private residence by Ebrahim Khan, the governor of Do Dangeh and Chahar Dangeh.
 

Ali Spring Edifice, Damqan

Friday, 04 January 2008 12:50 administrator
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The province of 'Gomess' and the city of Damqan, was favored by the monarchs of the early Qajar dynasty. Thus prompting rulers such as Aqa Mohammad Khan and Fathali Shah to construct beautiful edifices in the vicinity of Ali Spring (Damqan). The said have been brought under repair in the recent years.
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Other Caravansaries, Semnan

Friday, 04 January 2008 12:49 administrator
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 These are named as, the Anooshiravan in Ahovan of Semnan, the Nasar caravansary in the public bazaar of Semnan, the Soltan Hossain Baigara Rowbat (beyond the city gate of Nasar) Semnan, the Toomanias caravansary in the Shahid Sediq Ave., Shahrood and the Qoosheh caravansary in the village of Qoosheh in Damqan.
 


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